Business Management Milestones

Working within groups is the best way to overcome problems as groups are part of the organizations and thus cannot be excluded. The efficiency of production, process improvement as well as proficiency of problem solving is greater in groups instead of separate individuals (Akile & Norrain, 1998). Therefore, group effectiveness can assist in enhancing the overall management of the organizations with completion of tasks in an agreed time. There are six keys on the features of effective groups which are well-defined roles, strong norms, interaction, communication, group size and group cohesiveness.

Well-Defined Roles

  • In terms of well-defined roles, listing the roles and responsibilities of each group becomes more important than ever as the organization grows (Franz, 2016).
  • In fact, well-defined roles help in facilitating the full integration of an organization through effective communication between various groups.
  • The impact of well-defined roles establishes work productivity, accountability besides maintaining a competitive edge in an organization.
  • Clear roles and responsibilities are vital to establish a strong internal control system by dividing the work into group levels that determines who creates risk management strategy, who provides oversight and who implements control on an operational level in managing internal risks effectively.

Strong Norms

  • A set of beliefs, feelings and attitudes commonly shared by group members defines group norms as group members learn gradually as to what behaviors are necessary for the group to function effectively (LePine et al., 2000).
  • Moreover, strong norms eventually promote trust, mutual discussion and resolution avoiding conflicts among group members since everyone respects privacy, time and convenience of others.
  • In the shape of an iceberg, corporate culture patterns consisting visible and invisible aspects was visualized by Edward T. Hall. The hidden structures beneath the iceberg includes values and norms which are an important part as addressing the invisible parts can shape the culture in an organization.
  • Having said that, the top management should progressively monitor the benefits of group norms through consultation process techniques that allows creation of more groups with traits that are compatible with the organization’s aims and goals.


  • Good feelings, morale and work satisfaction are the essence of positive interactions among group members (Gibson, 1999).
  • This is because, a good interaction affects work efficiency and organization productivity without any confusion, anxiety, tension and uncertainty.
  • A perfect example would be Google LLC.

Google makes sure that employees could adjust their schedules and work on projects they are passionate about as well as attending to their personal lives. This factor is one of the components of success the company has achieved through passion, creativity and innovation as this giant entity is proud of its loyal employees who love to go to work.

  • For organizations to develop a positive work environment that results in a happy and productive workforce, the PERMA Model on elements of happiness by Martin Seligman should be considered.


  • A vital management component in an organization is communication. One of the leader’s top priorities is to develop strong communication skills with the top management and the rest of the group members in the organization (Katz, 1982).
  • In fact, communication skills are the most demanded soft skills that employers are looking for in their employees.
  • Organizations are able to have an effective high performance work culture through clear, honest and transparent communication.
  • Some real examples of top companies with great internal communications are Netflix and HubSpot.

Netflix have kept it simple when it comes to communicating with management internally despite being famous for their out-of-the-box thinking. Board members only observe when they periodically attend monthly and quarterly meetings. Along with this, only in the form of short online memos where questions are answered comes from the management. In recent years, Netflix have credited this as a meaningful contribution towards their performance.

HubSpot redefined what it meant to be transparent in business being the top global digital marketing automation company. The company allowed discussions directly with their Chief Technology Officer (CTO) which was effective as well as highly appreciative and to date HubSpot has received multiple awards for its company culture.

Group Size

  • An important component of group work is the dynamics of group size and groups of four to five members tend to work best in general (Driskell et al., 1987).
  • An individual’s flexibility or their capability as a group member to complete more than one kind of task is indeed valuable for an organization.
  • People in organizations are responsible for 50% of the work roughly the square root of the number of people in an organization and exponentially less people do half of the work when the group is larger.
  • A good example is the “Two Pizza Rule” by Jeff Bezos, who transformed Amazon into a multi-billion business.

The rule is simple whereby a group is too large if a group cannot be fed by two pizzas as consistent connections are more easily made with fewer group members meaning fewer connections within a network.

Pizza Algorithm – 2 Pizza Rule

Group Cohesiveness

  • Group members must demonstrate a sense of cohesion to work together successfully. The shared bond or attraction that drives members to stay together in unity and work together is described as group cohesion (Cota et al., 1995).
  • Skills such as openness, support, respect, trust and self-disclosure complements the emergence of cohesion.
  • Everyone is willing to self-disclose and be honest yet respectful as well as developing personal accountability for assigned tasks which develops a sense of mutual trust with one another in sharing innovative ideas and feelings.
  • Furthermore, greater trust and less dysfunctional conflict is the result of high agreement among members on group rules and norms strengthening task cohesiveness and emotional intelligence.

In conclusion, the tasks that are carried out and the reaction to failures as well as mishaps are determined by the culture of an organization. The probability of optimal operational integrity and productivity could be improved to a great extent with effective group practices involving coordination, communication, decision making and vigilance as well as monitoring technical task performances This situation not only improves attitudes and organizational efficiency but also boost morale and job satisfaction. In my opinion a high-performing business and a quality group with good ethic is the basis of a powerful entity which may lead to the success and smooth running of an organization.


  • Akile Anderson, Norrain, M. Cohen & West. (1998). Measuring climate for work group innovation: Development and validation of the group climate inventory. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 19, 235-258.
  • Amazon Inc. (2019). Is Amazon Reaching Unstoppable Heights? Retrieved from
  • Cota, A. A., Evans, C. R., Dion, K.L., Kilik, L., & Longman, R. S. (1995). The structure of group cohesion. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 572-580. Retrieved from
  • Driskell, J. E., Hogan, R., & Salas, E. (1987). Personality and group performance. In C. Hendrick (Ed.), Group processes and intergroup relations (pp. 91-112). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Edward T. Hall. (1976). “Beyond Culture and Revolutions.” Retrieved from
  • Franz, T. M. (2016) Group Dynamics and Team Interventions: Understanding and Improving Team Performance. Blackwell: Wiley.
  • Gibson, C. B. (1999). Do they do what they believe they can? Group efficacy and group effectiveness across tasks and cultures. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 138-152.
  • Google LLC. (2020). “Google organizes the world’s information and make it universally accessible, useful, friendly-user and innovative.” Retrieved from
  • HubSpot. (2019). “How it stands against 8 of its biggest competitors.” Retrieved from
  • Katz, R. (1982). The effects of group longevity on communication and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 27, 81-104.
  • LePine, J. A., Colquitt, J. A., & Ericka, A. (2000). Adaptability to changing task contexts: Effects of general cognitive ability, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Personnel Psychology, 53, 563-593.
  • Netflix Inc. (2018). Most Innovative Company in Recent Times. Retrieved from

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